Windows Update was showing an optional install (Released date: May 2012) for:
SAMSUNG Electronics Co., Ltd. – Other hardware – SAMSUNG Mobile MTP Device (4.3Mb)
After downloading and starting the install process, a Restore Point would be created, but attempts to complete the installation would always fail, even after restarting my PC. The solution…
The solution was simply to plug in my mobile phone (Samsung Galaxy Note II, N7100), and while it was plugged in, to then click the Windows Update install button. Installation was successful.
I am running Windows 7 (32-bit), and have Samsung Kies installed.